git pull command is used to download changes from a remote repository and merge them into the local repository. It combines the functionality of two other Git commands:
git fetch, which downloads the changes, and
git merge, which integrates those changes into the local repository.
The basic syntax for
git pull is:
git pull <remote> <branch>
remote is the name of the remote repository you want to pull changes from, and
branch is the name of the branch you want to merge.
For example, to pull changes from the
origin remote and merge the changes from the
git pull origin master
git pull is a convenient command for synchronizing your local repository with a remote repository, but it can also result in merge conflicts if changes made on different branches conflict with each other. In these cases, you may need to manually resolve the conflicts before you can continue with the merge.
Default git pull
git pull command is equivalent to running
git fetch followed by
git merge origin/master, where
origin/master is the default remote and branch for the repository you are currently working on.
Here’s an example:
Suppose you have a remote repository named
origin with a branch named
master, and you have cloned it to your local machine. You have made some changes to your local repository, and now you want to update it with the latest changes from the remote repository. You can do this by running:
$ git pull
This will execute a
git fetch operation to retrieve the latest changes from the remote repository and then run a
git merge operation to merge the remote changes with your local repository. If there are any merge conflicts, Git will prompt you to resolve them before continuing.
Git Force Pull
git pull --force or
git pull -f command is used to overwrite the local repository with the remote repository, even if it means discarding local changes. This can be useful if the remote repository has been updated and you want to immediately reflect those changes in your local repository.
Example: Let’s say you have a remote repository
origin and you want to overwrite your local repository with it using force pull. The command would be:
git pull –force origin
This command will retrieve the latest changes from the
origin remote repository and overwrite your local repository with those changes, even if it means discarding any local changes.
Note: It is not recommended to use
--force option unless you are aware of what you are doing and are sure that you want to discard local changes.
Git Pull Request
A pull request is a feature in Git that allows users to propose changes to a repository’s code and have it reviewed by other contributors before merging it into the main branch. This is a common workflow in open-source projects and collaborative development where multiple contributors work on the same codebase. The pull request allows the repository maintainer to review the changes, suggest modifications, and ultimately decide whether to merge the changes into the main branch or not. To create a pull request, the user forks the repository, makes changes in a separate branch, pushes the changes to their forked repository, and then opens a pull request in the original repository, describing the changes and proposing them for review and integration.
How to Create a Pull Request?
A pull request is a way for a developer to request changes to be merged into a Git repository. Here is a general process for creating a pull request:
- Fork the repository: Go to the repository you want to contribute to and click the “Fork” button. This will create a copy of the repository under your own account.
- Clone the repository: Clone the repository to your local machine using the “git clone” command.
- Create a new branch: Use the “git checkout -b” command to create a new branch for your changes.
- Make your changes: Make the necessary changes to the code and add the changes to the staging area using “git add” command.
- Commit the changes: Use the “git commit” command to commit the changes to your local repository.
- Push the changes: Use the “git push” command to push the changes to your forked repository.
- Create the pull request: Go to the original repository, and you should see a “Compare & pull request” button. Click it and fill out the form. The repository owner will receive a notification of your pull request, and they can review and merge your changes.
Note: Before making a pull request, make sure that you have read the contribution guidelines for the repository, and that your changes are aligned with them.
Git Pull Vs Fetch
Git fetch and Git pull are both Git commands used to retrieve the latest changes from a remote repository and update the local repository with those changes.
The main difference between Git fetch and Git pull is the way they update the local repository.
Git fetch only retrieves the changes from the remote repository and stores them in the local repository. It does not merge the changes into the local branch. To merge the changes, you must use another Git command such as Git merge.
Git pull, on the other hand, retrieves the changes from the remote repository and automatically merges them into the local branch.
Example: Let’s say you have a remote repository named “origin” that contains a branch named “master”. To retrieve the latest changes from the “origin/master” branch, you can use either Git fetch or Git pull.
Git fetch: $ git fetch origin
Git pull: $ git pull origin master
In this example, Git fetch retrieves the changes from the “origin/master” branch and stores them in the local repository, but does not merge them into the local branch. Git pull retrieves the changes from the “origin/master” branch and automatically merges them into the local branch.