Major PostgreSQL Features You Should Know About

If you are currently common with other SQL databases but new to PostgreSQL, then this post is best for you. It will support you fully grasp the nuances and get started with PostgreSQL.

Observe: Most comparisons in this report are specific in the direction of MySQL because it is the closest open source database that PostgreSQL can be in contrast versus.

No Default Purchasing on Main Important

If you have previously labored with MySQL, then you should really be common with the truth that the most important crucial of any desk is a clustered critical by default. The facts is physically purchased on the disk employing the index, and this is why when querying a most important critical in MySQL, the info is sorted devoid of having purchase by in the query.


Let us take a look at our concept with some experiments by running the query beneath:

-- Develop desk E1
Develop Table E1 (
  empId INTEGER,
  title Textual content NOT NULL,
  dept Textual content NOT NULL

-- Insert sample values
INSERT INTO E1 VALUES (0001, 'John', 'Sales')
INSERT INTO E1 VALUES (0003, 'Ava', 'Sales')
INSERT INTO E1 VALUES (0002, 'Dave', 'Accounting')

-- Select with out Buy By
Find * FROM E1

running query

Now, let’s develop a key key:

-- Include Main crucial. This is clustered by default
Change Desk E1 Increase Primary Key (empID)

primary key

As you can see, we did not include things like an purchase by clause in our query, but MySQL nevertheless returns rows in the same get.


Let’s run the same established of queries in PostgreSQL, only on a desk with a Key Key:

-- Related code to MySQL. Make desk and insert sample values.
-- Key essential is extra in the Build alone.
Make Desk E1 (
  empId INTEGER Primary Vital,
  name Textual content NOT NULL,
  dept Textual content NOT NULL

INSERT INTO E1 VALUES (0001, 'John', 'Sales')
INSERT INTO E1 VALUES (0003, 'Ava', 'Sales')
INSERT INTO E1 VALUES (0002, 'Dave', 'Accounting')

If we run a query like Select * (see underneath), PostgreSQL will not form information by empId – we should incorporate an Get BY clause alternatively.

not store data

must include order by

Clustered keys have their personal positive aspects and drawbacks, but there is no default clustered vital in PostgreSQL. PostgreSQL gives you the choice to do clustering if demanded, however.

ACID Compliance Variations

PostgreSQL has default ACID compliance settings which are quite distinct and stricter in mother nature. Some of them are as follows:

Dirty Read

PostgreSQL has stricter ACID compliance by default. For case in point, MySQL has an isolation amount (Read through Uncommitted) which lets dirty reads to come about, whereas, in PostgreSQL, there is no model/stage the place dirty looking at is permitted.


To accomplish the serializable isolation amount (strongest amount), PostgreSQL makes use of a little something termed memory-dependent MVCC. This is a great deal a lot quicker and typically does not need explicit locks to accomplish a serializable level. In comparison, MySQL achieves it with fine-grained locks. In most conditions, there is no performance change, but it has been argued that memory-primarily based MVCC is a little greater and helps prevent bloat in the key table.

Connections Are Pricey

PostgreSQL follows approach-based mostly concurrency, and hence opening, and closing of connections are not inspired. This is also the case with many other database devices, but much more so in PostgreSQL. Therefore, it is suggested to use a link pool that maintains connections for a longer interval, and applications can then open up and shut connections by means of this link pool. 

PostgreSQL Is Not a One Product Database

End users of PostgreSQL need to also observe that PostgreSQL is not a one product database. It seamlessly integrates other database designs/forms into the relational model of procedure. A whole lot has been created on this, so I will just connection the article content right here.



Fuzzy Search

Complete-Text Lookup

Important-Benefit Retailer

These details styles also have their have exceptional index types for faster obtain. Contrary to MySQL, which has unique engines, PostgreSQL performs applying the same engine, and only the datatypes and index varieties differ.

Database vs Schema

In PostgreSQL, a databases is completely separated from other databases. It is a good exercise to maintain only 1 databases in a PostgreSQL cluster. If there is a will need to logically team tables, then that is the place the schema arrives in.

  • A PostgreSQL databases is rigidly different from other databases. A database relationship is generally opened to 1 database in the cluster. That link are unable to be reused to join other databases even inside the exact same cluster.
  • Cluster assets are similarly shared in between distinct databases in the similar cluster.
  • Schemas can be reused involving diverse databases connections and depict a reasonable selection of tables.
  • Knowledge backup and restoration typically do the job at the database stage with all the schemas self-contained.

These points are significant to realize, particularly for an individual coming from a database like MySQL, in which these terminologies are reversed.

Dialect Dissimilarities

Each database out there has its possess SQL dialect for a lot of motives. PostgreSQL has its personal dialect, which is pretty near to the ANSI SQL standard. The SQL glossary is stated in the documentation in this article.

Open Supply & Group Owned

Open source and neighborhood-owned are two really various issues. Open resource depicts the license of the computer software, this sort of as

and so on.,

and local community-owned usually means the direction of the evolution and development and enhancement is made the decision by a volunteer community. A group-owned open resource application is much improved than an organization-owned open up-source program because no business dictates the potential of the venture. PostgreSQL has a license that is equivalent to BSD or MIT and is a great deal much more permissible than GPL (MySQL License.) For all functional use instances, a single does not need to stress about the license of PostgreSQL for most of their get the job done.

There are not a lot of relational databases that fulfill all 3 of the subsequent commandments:

  • The databases is open resource like PostgreSQL (liberal licensing.)
  • The databases is group-owned.
  • The databases arrives with an comprehensive person base and adoption.

To me, this is a person of the best strengths of the PostgreSQL database.

In this site, we have gone more than a pair of options offered by PostgreSQL that are not available by other database management methods like MySQL.
If we even further assess PostgreSQL in opposition to MySQL and other database management systems, we would notice that there are a pair much more delicate differences which includes, but not becoming constrained to:

  • Vacuum in PostgreSQL vs. Purge in MySQL.
  • Processes in PostgreSQL vs. Threads in MySQL. (MySQL makes use of threads)
  • Desk inheritance which is existing in PostgreSQL but not existing in MySQL.

And a good deal additional. It is significant to fully grasp how any characteristics you’ve selected to make use of will influence your database infrastructure as a full, as database management systems have been made for a large variety of use cases. Stay clear of evaluating options just for the sake of comparing, though – these databases management techniques existed for ages, new features are receiving added quite often, and the roadmap is switching promptly.

As much as PostgreSQL is involved, preserve in thoughts that even though it has its individual disadvantages, it really is deemed one of the most innovative open up-supply database administration units offered for use currently. It is our accountability as program engineers to realize all of the tradeoffs posed by the database administration technique and make seem choices. We hope that this post has given you some much more perception on what is actually offered in PostgreSQL and thus permitted you to make knowledgeable choices.

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