Blasphemy: Is it still a crime

What is blasphemy? -
Blasphemy is the act of disrespecting or offending a deity or a religion. 

Where can the concept of blasphemy be found? - Blasphemy is mostly associated with Abrahamic religions, namely Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. 

Christianity -
Blasphemy is very much present in the Bible and Christian theology at large. 

It’s a sin -
The Lutheran Church text 'The Book of Concord' (1580) also makes reference to blasphemy, calling it "the greatest sin that can be outwardly committed."

Calvinist text -
The ‘Heidelberg Catechism’ (1563) states that "no sin is greater or provokes God's wrath more than the blaspheming of His Name."

Acts of Reparation -
The Catholic Church in particular has prayers and devotions to make amends with God if one commits the sin of blasphemy.

The Golden Arrow prayer -
The Golden Arrow prayer, introduced in 1844 by Discalced Carmelite nun Mary of Saint Peter, is said as an Act of Reparation.

Punishment -
In 1636, the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony defined blasphemy as "a cursing of God by atheism, or the like." It was a sin that was punishable by death.

Islam -
Any action deemed offensive to God, the Prophet Muhammad, or any other sacred element in Islam is blasphemous.

Islam -
For its part, Sharia law does suggest a number of punishments for blasphemy, which vary in severity depending on the case. 

Judaism -
Blasphemy is heavily punished in Judaism, especially for those who blaspheme the Tetragrammaton (God).

Dharmic religions -
With the exception of Sikhism, Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism do not have the concept of blasphemy.

Crime -
Blasphemy can be both a speech and a religious crime, and while many nations have repealed blasphemy laws, others still have them enforced.

English common law -
In English common law, blasphemy could be punishable by fine, imprisonment, or corporal punishment. 

Muslim countries where blasphemy laws are enforced - The vast majority of Muslim countries enforce blasphemy laws. 

Other nations with blasphemy laws - Section 295A of the Indian Penal Code is essentially a blasphemy law.

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