CSCE: – Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
The world’s largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization is Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), which is formerly called Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). With headquarters in Vienna, the organization mandate includes issues such as promotion of human rights, fundamental freedom, arms control, fair elections and freedom of the press. Representatives of CSCE (Almost all the states of Europe, as well as the United States and Canada), are committed to formalizing decisions on important questions affecting the security and stability of the European continent as a whole.
The organization was established in 1972, and its first conference (1973–75) was attended by the representatives from the United States, Canada and from all 33 countries of Europe (with the exception of Albania). The periodic meetings or summits of OSCE are held every two to three years and it is the highest all-purpose decision making body of the OSCE. The body for regular decision-making on all issues of CSCE competence and political consultation is called The Permanent Council (PC). The Permanent Council acts therefore as an important forum for continuous dialogue among OSCE participating States. The work of the Permanent Council is organized and supported by the Preparatory Committee, established by the 1999 Istanbul Summit. However it should be noted that Permanent Council meetings are not open to the public and are always off the record.