Android is an operating system developed by Google. It is modified version of Linux kernel and other open source software. Today android used in many electronic devices like touchscreen mobile, tablets, android TV, Android Auto for cars, and Android watches, each with a specialized user interface. Android are also used on game, digital cameras other electronics.
Android history and versions:
In 2003, Android Inc. started the development of the Android operating system. Later, in 2005, Google purchased it. On November 5, 2007, Google released the beta version of Android OS. Later, on November 12, 2007, the software development kit (SDK) was released. Again in October 2008, the first Android mobile was publicly released. This mobile was released with Android 1.0 of the T-Mobile G1 i.e., HTC Dream. Currently, in August 2019, Google made the announcement that the confectionery scheme is now ending, and numerical ordering will be used for future Android versions. Under the numerical order format, Android 10, is the first released Android version.
Android versions, name, and API level:
|Version numbers||Code name||Release date||API level|
|1||No codename||September 23, 2008||1|
|1.1||No codename||February 9, 2009||2|
|1.5||Cupcake||April 27, 2009||3|
|1.6||Donut||September 15, 2009||4|
|2.0 – 2.1||Eclair||October 26, 2009||5 – 7|
|2.2 – 2.2.3||Froyo||May 20, 2010||8|
|2.3 – 2.3.7||Gingerbread||December 6, 2010||9 – 10|
|3.0 – 3.2.6||Honeycomb||February 22, 2011||11 – 13|
|4.0 – 4.0.4||Ice Cream Sandwich||October 18, 2011||14 – 15|
|4.1 – 4.3.1||Jelly Bean||July 9, 2012||16 – 18|
|4.4 – 4.4.4||KitKat||October 31, 2013||19 – 20|
|5.0 – 5.1.1||Lollipop||November 12, 2014||21- 22|
|6.0 – 6.0.1||Marshmallow||October 5, 2015||23|
|7||Nougat||August 22, 2016||24|
|7.1.0 – 7.1.2||Nougat||October 4, 2016||25|
|8||Oreo||August 21, 2017||26|
|8.1||Oreo||December 5, 2017||27|
|9||Pie||August 6, 2018||28|
|10||Android 10||September 3, 2019||29|
Android Version 1.0 to 1.1: No codename:
In September 2008, Android version 1.0 was officially published. Being the initial version of the Android operating system, features like Web browser was supported to show HTML and XHTML web pages, camera, access web email server (POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP). Features like Google Calendar, Google Maps, Google Sync, Google Search, Google Talk, Instant messaging, Media player, Notifications appear in the status bar, wallpaper, YouTube video player, Alarm Clock, Calculator, Dialer, Pictures (Gallery), Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support, were also included in this initial version.
Android version 1.5: Cupcake:
With Linux kernel 2.6.27, Android updated to 1.5 on April 27, 2009. It was given the codename of the dessert item, Cupcake. What made it better from the previous versions of Android was its support for the third-party virtual keyboard, Video recording and playback in MPEG-4, Copy and paste feature, Animated screen translations, auto-rotation option, ability to upload a video to YouTube, upload photos to Picasa, check phone usage history, etc.
Android version 1.6: Donut:
Features like voice and text entry search, bookmark history, contacts, web, “speak” a string of text, faster camera access, user can select multiple photos for deletion, support text-to-speech engine, WVGA screen resolutions, were included in Android 1.6 which was released on September 15, 2009, with the name Donut.
Android version 2.0 to 2.1: Eclair:
Android 2.0 was released on October 26, 2009. It was given the codename of Eclair. Features like expanded account sync, Microsoft Exchange email support, Bluetooth 2.1, ability to tap a Contact photo and select to call, SMS, ability to search all saved SMS, MMS messages, delete the oldest message automatically when the defined limit is reached, Minor API, bug fixes, were included in Android version 2.0 which was based on Linux kernel 2.6.29.
Android version 2.2 to 2.2.3: Froyo:
Android version 2.3 to 2.3.7: Gingerbread:
Android 2.3 was released on December 6, 2010. It was given the codename of Gingerbread. Features like support for extra-large screen size and resolutions, updated user interface design with increased simplicity and speed, enhanced copy/paste functionality, select a word by press-holding, support Near Field Communication (NFC), headphone virtualization, new Download Manager, were included in the Android version 2.3 which was based on Linux kernel 2.6.35. At the same time, improved bug fixes for Nexus S, voice or video chat using Google Talk, network performance for Nexus S 4G, Gmail application, battery efficiency, fixed a voice search bug, Google Wallet support for Nexus S 4G, were also introduced in the Android version 2.3.
Android version 3.0 to 3.2.6: Honeycomb:
Android 3.0 was released on February 22, 2011. It was launched for the first tablet for Android-based on Linux kernel 2.6.36 and was given the codename of Honeycomb. Features like “holographic” user interface for tablet, added system Bar, simplified multitasking tapping Recent Application in system Bar, redesign the keyboard making fast typing, quick access to camera exposure, hardware acceleration, support for multi-core processor, UI refinements, connectivity for USB accessories, support for joysticks and gamepads, high-performance Wi-Fi lock, improved hardware support, Google Books, fixed data connectivity issues when coming out of Airplane mode, were included in the Android version 3.0.
Android version 4.0 to 4.0.4: Ice Cream Sandwich:
Android 4.0.1 was released on October 19, 2011. It was based on Linux kernel 3.0.1 and was given the codename of Ice Cream Sandwich. Features like refinements to “Holo” interface with new Roboto font family, separation of widgets in a new tab, integrated screenshot capture, improved error correction on the keyboard, improved copy and paste functionality, build-in photo editor, fixed minor bugs, improvement to graphics, spell-checking, better camera performance, were included in the Android version 4.0.1, which was the last version of officially support Adobe System Flash player.
Android version 4.1 to 4.3.1: Jelly Bean:
Google announced Android 4.1, on June 27, 2012, in the Google I/O conference. It was given the codename of Jelly Bean. Features like smoother user interface, enhance accessibility, expandable notification, fixed bug on Nexus 7, one-finger gestures to expand/collapse notifications, lock screen improvement, multiple user accounts (tablets only), new clock application, Bluetooth low energy support, volume for an incoming call, 4K resolution support, native emoji support, bug fixes for the Nexus 7 LTE were included in the Android version 4.1, which was based on Linux kernel 3.0.31.
Android version 4.4 to 4.4.4: KitKat:
Android 4.4 was announced by Google on September 3, 2013. With the initial code name of “Key Lime Pie”, it was later given the code name of KitKat. Features like clock no longer display bold hours, wireless printing capability, WebViews are based on Chromium engine, sensor batching, built-in screen recording feature, better application compatibility, camera application loads Google+ Photo instead of Gallery, were included in the Android version 4.4. On October 31, 2013, Google started Android on Google’s Nexus 5. The minimum RAM required is 340 MB, and the devices with less than 512 MB of RAM are reported as “low RAM” devices.
Android version 5.0 to 5.1.1: Lollipop:
With the initial code name as “Android L” on June 25, 2014, Android 5.0 was officially introduced on November 12, 2014, with the code name Lollipop. Features like redesigned user interface, support for 64-bit CPUs, support for print previews, material design, Project Volta for battery life improvement, multiple user accounts, audio input, and output through USB devices, join Wi-Fi networks, support for multiple SIM cards, device protection, high-definition voice calls, native Wi-Fi calling support, were included in the Android version 5.0.
Android version 6.0 – 6.0.1: Marshmallow:
On May 28, 2015, Android 6.0 was disclosed for Nexus 5 and Nexus 6 phones, Nexus 9 tablet, under the codename “Android M”. It was later launched on October 5, 2015, for all android devices, with the code name of Marshmallow. Features like App Standby feature, introduce the Doze mode to save battery life, native fingerprint reader support, run-time permission requests, USB-C support, Unicode 7.0 & 8.0 emoji support, were included in the Android version 6.0.
Android version 7.0 to 7.1.2: Nougat:
First released as a developer preview on March 9, 2016, with the initial codename of “Android N”, and with factory images for the Nexus device, Android 7.0 was a major release for the Android operating system. The final preview build was released on August 22, 2016, and was given the code name of Nougat. Features like file-based encryption, zoom in the screen, multi-window support, new Data Saver mode, JIT compiler makes 75 percent faster app installation, picture-in-picture support, support manager APIs, circular app icons support, send GIFs directly from the default keyboard, battery usage alerts, were included in the Android version 7.0.
Android version 8.0 to 8.1: Oreo:
Android 8.0 was first released for developer preview on March 21, 2017, as the 8th major release of the Android operating system. On July 24, 2017, the final developer preview was released, while its stable version was released on August 21, 2017. It was given the code name of Oreo. Features like picture-in-picture support, support for Unicode 10.0 emoji (5.0), restructured settings, adaptive icons, notification channels, notification dots, 2 times faster boot time, Google Play Protect, Integrated printing support, Neural network API, shared memory API, Android Oreo Go Edition, autofill framework, automatic light, and dark themes, were included in the Android version 8.0.
Android version 9.0: Pie:
Android 9.0 was first announced and its preview was launched by Google on March 7, 2018, as the ninth major version of the Android operating system. Officially released on August 6, 2018, it was given the code name of Pie. Features like the clock have moved to the left of the notification bar, the “screenshot” button has been added, battery percentage always shown on display were included in the Android version 9.0.
Android version 10:
Under the codename “Android Q”, Android 10 was initially announced by Google on March 13, 2019, as the tenth extensive version of the Android operating system. The beta version of Android 10 was released on April 3, 2019, while its stable version was released on September 3, 2019. Features like new permissions to access location in the background, floating setting panel, support for an AV1 video codec, support for biometric authentication, support for WPA3 Wi-Fi security, were included in the Android version 10.