- It is made up of a single layer of cells with an external coating of waxy cuticle.
- Epidermal outgrowths are usually absent.
- Very few stomata are found.
- It is composed a few layer of sclerenchyma cells lying just below the epidermis.
- It gives mechanical support to the stem.
- The ground tissue is not differentiated into cortex, epidermis pericycle or pith.
- It is composed of a large mass of loosely arranged parenchyma cells found next to hypodermis.
- The cell wall is composed of cellulose.
- The cells contain reserve food materials.
- The vascular bundles are embedded within the ground tissue.
- Numerous bundles are found scattered throughout the ground tissue.
- Smaller bundles are seen towards the periphery and are more crowded.
- The larger ones are seen towards the centre and are more spaced.
- Each vascular bundle is surrounded by a sclerenchymatous bundle sheath.
- The bundles are collateral closed. It is a characteristic feature of monocot stem.
|Dicot Stem||Monocot Stem|
|Epidermis – Have outgrowths (trichomes)||Epidermis – No outgrowths|
|Hypodermis – Made of collenchyma||Hypodermis – Made of sclerenchyma|
|Ground tissue – Differentiated into cortex, endodermis, pericycle, medulllary rays and pith.||Ground tissue – No Differentiation|
|Xylem & Phloem – Few in number||Xylem & Phloem – Numerous|
|Vascular bundles – Arranged in the form of a brocken ring||Vascular bundles – Scattered in the ground tissue|
|Cambium – Present between the xylem and phloem||Cambium – Absent, hence closed type|
|Phloem parenchyma – Present||Phloem parenchyma – Absent|
|Vascular bundles – Have a sclerenchymatous bundle cap||Vascular bundles – Have a sclerenchymatous bundle sheath|