# Need for modulation, amplitude modulation and frequency modulation

## Need for modulation

A communication channel just works at a specific frequency range like telephone cables, terrestrial (over the air broadcast), ethernet, optical fiber, etc. Modulation deciphers a signal from its baseband to the working range of the channel. By modulating various signals to various frequency bands, they can be transmitted at the same time over a similar channel .Frequency division multiplexing amplitude modulation.

## Amplitude modulation

AM was the primary across the board system utilized in radio broadcasting. An AM signal has the mathematical form

s(t) = Ac[1 + Kam(t)] cos !ct

where

• m(t) is the baseband message.

• c(t) = Ac cos !ct is called the carrier wave.

• The carrier frequency, FC, should be larger

than the highest spectral component in m(t).

•The parameter ka is a positive steady called the amplitude sensitivity of the modulator.

## Frequency modulation:

Frequency modulation is that type of edge modulation where the momentary frequency if (t) is shifted straightly with the message signal m(t):

f (t) f k m(t) (2.5) I C f = +

The term C f speaks to the frequency of the unmodulated carrier and the consistent f k speaks to the frequency affectability of the modulator, communicated in hertz per volt on the presumption that m(t) is a voltage waveform

## Advantages of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation:

• The amplitude of an FM wave stays consistent after some time. This allows the encoders and decoders the freedom to remove the noise from the received signal. This is finished with the help of a channel that expels sign of wavelength more noteworthy than that of the transmitted sign in this way of removing the voice. FM systems are noise immune systems. Since the AM sign moved data utilizing the amplitude, the envelope of the waveform can’t be changed.
• In AM systems, the power utilization for signal transmission is higher when contrasted with FM systems. In AM systems, the power relies upon the modulation index likewise called ‘MA’. At the point when MA arrives at solidarity, the power utilization is 10
• In an AM system, there is no guard band in the middle of two contiguous channels. This genuinely expands the event of the impedance of AM radio station except if one signal is sufficiently able to overwhelm the other. Though on account of FM signal, the contiguous FM channels are isolated by guard bands which results in next to no impedance between adjacent FM channels.